Finding a Surgeon

Finding a surgeon refers to the process of choosing a doctor with specialized training in one or more branches of surgery to perform a specific procedure. It is almost always done in the context of elective surgery rather than emergency operations.

Finger Reattachment

Finger reattachment (or replacement) is defined as reattachment of the part that has been completely amputated.


Fluoroquinolones are medications that kill bacteria or prevent their growth. Bacteria are one-celled diseasecausing microorganisms that commonly multiply by cell division.

Forehead Lift

A forehead lift is a cosmetic surgery procedure intended to improve a person's appearance by correcting the shape of the eyebrows and reducing horizontal wrinkles or furrows in the skin of the forehead. It is also known as a brow lift.

Fracture Repair

Fracture repair is the process of rejoining and realigning the ends of broken bones, usually performed by an orthopedist, general surgeon, or family doctor. In cases of an emergency, first aid measures should be used to provide temporary realignment and immobilization until proper medical help is available.

Gallstone Removal

Also known as cholelithotomy, gallstone removal is a procedure that rids the gallbladder of calculus buildup.

Ganglion Cyst Removal

Ganglion cyst removal, or ganglionectomy, is the removal of a fluid-filled sac on the skin of the wrist, finger, or sole of the foot. The cyst is attached to a tendon or a joint through its fibers and contains synovial fluid, which is the clear liquid that lubricates the joints and tendons of the body.


Gastrectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach.

Gastric Acid Inhibitors

Gastric acid inhibitors are medications that reduce the production of stomach acid. They are different from antacids, which act on stomach acid after it has been produced and released into the stomach.

Gastric Bypass

A gastric bypass is a surgical procedure that creates a very small stomach; the rest of the stomach is removed. The small intestine is attached to the new stomach, allowing the lower part of the stomach to be bypassed.


A gastroduodenostomy is a surgical reconstruction procedure by which a new connection between the stomach and the first portion of the small intestine (duodenum) is created.

Gastroenterologic Surgery

Gastroenterologic surgery includes a variety of surgical procedures performed on the organs and conduits of the digestive system. These procedures include the repair, removal, or resection of the esophagus, liver, stomach, spleen, pancreas, gallbladder, colon, anus, and rectum.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Scan

Gastrointestinal reflux imaging refers to several methods of diagnostic imaging used to visualize and diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD is one of the most common gastrointestinal problems among children or adults.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Surgery

Gastroesophageal reflux surgery is typically performed in patients with serious gastroesophageal reflux disease that does not respond to drug therapy. Gastroesophageal reflux is classified as the symptoms produced by the inappropriate movement of stomach contents back up into the esophagus.


Gastrostomy is a surgical procedure for inserting a tube through the abdomen wall and into the stomach. The tube, called a "g-tube," is used for feeding or drainage.

General Surgery

General surgery is the treatment of injury, deformity, and disease using operative procedures.


Gingivectomy is periodontal surgery that removes and reforms diseased gum tissue or other gingival buildup related to serious underlying conditions. For more chronic gingival conditions, gingivectomy is utilized after other non-surgical methods have been tried, and before gum disease has advanced enough to jeopardize the ligaments and bone supporting the teeth.


A glossectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the tongue.

Glucose Tests

Glucose tests are used to determine the concentration of glucose in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and other body fluids. These tests are used to detect increased blood glucose (hyperglycemia), decreased blood glucose (hypoglycemia), increased glucose in the urine (glycosuria), and decreased glucose in CSF, serous, and synovial fluid glucose.


A goniotomy is a surgical procedure primarily used to treat congenital glaucoma, first described in 1938. It is caused by a developmental arrest of some of the structures within the anterior (front) segment of the eye.

Hair Transplantation

Hair transplantation is a surgical procedure used to treat baldness or hair loss (alopecia). Typically, tiny patches of scalp are removed from the back and sides of the head and implanted in the bald spots in the front and top of the head.

Hammer, Claw, and Mallet Toe Surgery

Hammer, claw, and mallet toe surgery refers to a series of surgical procedures performed to correct deformed toes.

Hand Surgery

Hand surgery refers to procedures performed to treat traumatic injuries or loss of function resulting from such diseases as advanced arthritis of the hand.

Health Care Proxy

A health care proxy, or health care proxy form, is a legal document that allows a person to choose someone to make medical decisions on their behalf when they are unable to do so. In some states the person who is authorized may be called a proxy; in others the person may be called an agent.

Health History

The health history is a current collection of organized information unique to an individual. Relevant aspects of the history include biographical, demographic, physical, mental, emotional, sociocultural, sexual, and spiritual data.

Heart-Lung Machines

The heart-lung machine is medical equipment that provides cardiopulmonary bypass, or mechanical circulatory support of the heart and lungs. The machine may consist of venous and arterial cannula (tubes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or silicone tubing, reservoir (to hold blood), bubbler or membrane oxygenator, cardiotomy (filtered reservoir), heat exchanger(s), arterial line filter, pump(s), flow meter, inline blood gas and electrolyte analyzer, and pressure-monitoring devices.

Heart-Lung Transplantation

Heart-lung transplantation is the replacement of the native diseased heart and lungs by transplant of donor heart and lungs.

Heart Surgery for Congenital Defects

Heart surgery for congenitaal defects consists of a variety of surgical procedures that are performed to repair the many types of heart defects that may be present at birth and can go undiagnosed into adulthood.

Heart Transplantation

Heart transplantation, also called cardiac transplantation, is the replacement of a patient's diseased or injured heart with a healthy donor heart.

Hemangioma Excision

Hemangioma excision is the use of surgical techniques to remove benign tumors made up of blood vessels that are often located within the skin. Strawberry hemangiomas are often called strawberry birthmarks.


The hematocrit is a test that measures the percentage of blood that is comprised of red blood cells.


Hemispherectomy is a surgical treatment for epilepsy in which one of the two cerebral hemispheres, which together make up the majority of the brain, is removed.

Hemoglobin Test

Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen. A hemoglobin test reveals how much hemoglobin is in a person's blood.


Hemoperfusion is a treatment technique in which large volumes of the patient's blood are passed over an adsorbent substance in order to remove toxic substances from the blood. Adsorption is a process in which molecules or particles of one substance are attracted to the surface of a solid material and held there.


A hemorrhoidectomy is the surgical removal of a hemorrhoid, which is an enlarged, swollen and inflamed cluster Hemorrhoids can occur inside the rectum, or at its opening (A). To remove them, the surgeon feeds a gauze swab into the anus and removes it slowly.


Hepatectomies are performed to surgically remove tumors from the liver. Most liver cancers start in liver cells called "hepatocytes." The resulting cancer is called hepatocellular carcinoma or malignant hepatoma.

Hip Osteotomy

A hip osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which the bones of the hip joint are cut, reoriented, and fixed in a new position. Healthy cartilage is placed in the weight-bearing area of the joint, followed by reconstruction of the joint in a more normal position.

Hip Replacement

Hip replacement is a procedure in which the surgeon removes damaged or diseased parts of the patient's hip joint and replaces them with new artificial parts. The operation itself is called hip arthroplasty.

Hip Revision Surgery

Hip revision surgery, which is also known as revision total hip arthroplasty, is a procedure in which the surgeon removes a previously implanted artificial hip joint, or prosthesis, and replaces it with a new prosthesis. Hip revision surgery may also involve the use of bone grafts.

Home Care

Home care is a form of health care service provided where a patient lives. Patients can receive home care services whether they live in their own homes, with or without family members, or in an assisted living facility.


The term hospice refers to an approach to end-of-life care as well as to a type of facility for supportive care of terminally ill patients. Hospice programs provide palliative (care that relieves discomfort but does not improve the patient's condition or cure the disease) patient-centered care, and other services.

Hospital-Acquired Infections

A hospital-acquired infection, also called a nosocomial infection, is an infection that first appears between 48 hours and four days after a patient is admitted to a hospital or other health-care facility.

Hospital Services

Hospital services is a term that refers to medical and surgical services and the supporting laboratories, equipment and personnel that make up the medical and surgical mission of a hospital or hospital system.

Human Leukocyte Antigen Test

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) test, also known as HLA typing or tissue typing, identifies antigens on the white blood cells (WBCs) that determine tissue compatibility for organ transplantation (that is, histocompatibility testing). There are six loci on chromosome 6, where the genes that produce HLA antigens are inherited: HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP.


Hydrocelectomy, also known as hydrocele repair, is a surgical procedure performed to correct a hydrocele. A hydrocele is an accumulation of peritoneal fluid in a membrane called the tunica vaginalis, which covers the front and sides of the male testes.


Hypophysectomy, or hypophysis, is the surgical removal of the pituitary gland.

Hypospadias Repair

Hypospadias repair refers to a group of surgical approaches used to correct or reconstruct parts of the external genitalia and urinary tract related to a displaced meatus, or opening of the urethra. The urethra is the passageway that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.


Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the uterus. In a total hysterectomy, the uterus and cervix are removed.


Hysteroscopy enables a physician to look through the vagina and neck of the uterus (cervix) to inspect the cavity of the uterus with an instrument called a hysteroscope. Hysteroscopy is used as both a diagnostic and a treatment tool.

Ileal Conduit Surgery

There are many surgical techniques for urinary diversion surgery. They fall into two categories: continent diversion and conduit diversion.

Ileoanal Anastomosis

Ileoanal anastomosis is a surgical procedure in which the large intestine is bypassed and the lower portion of the small intestine is directly attached to the anal canal. It is also called an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

Ileoanal Reservoir Surgery

Ileoanal reservoir surgery or ileoanal anastomosis is a two-stage restorative procedure that removes a part of the colon and uses the ileum (a section of the small intestine) to form a new reservoir for waste that can be expelled through the anus. This surgery is one of several continent surgeries that rely upon a newly created pouch to replace the resected colon and retain the patient's sphincter for natural defecation.


An ileostomy is a surgical procedure in which the small intestine is attached to the abdominal wall in order to bypass the large intestine; digestive waste then exits the body through an artificial opening called a stoma (from the Greek word for "mouth").

Immunoassay Tests

Immunoassays are chemical tests used to detect or quantify a specific substance, the analyte, in a blood or body fluid sample, using an immunological reaction. Immunoassays are highly sensitive and specific.

Immunologic Therapies

Immunologic therapy is an approach to the treatment of disease that uses medicines for stimulating the body's natural immune response.

Immunosuppressant Drugs

Immunosuppressant drugs, which are also called anti-rejection drugs, are used to prevent the body from rejecting a transplanted organ.

Implantable Cardioverterdefibrillator

The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a surgically implanted electronic device that directs an electric charge directly into the heart to treat life-threatening arrhythmias.

In Vitro Fertilization

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a procedure in which eggs (ova) from a woman's ovary are removed, they are fertilized with sperm in a laboratory procedure, and then the fertilized egg (embryo) is returned to the woman's uterus.

Incision Care

Incision care refers to a series of procedures and precautions related to closing a wound or surgical incision; protecting the cut or injured tissues from contamination or infection; and caring properly for the new skin that forms during the healing process. Incision care begins in the hospital or outpatient clinic and is continued by the patient during recovery at home.

Incisional Hernia Repair

Incisional hernia repair is a surgical procedure performed to correct an incisional hernia. An incisional hernia, also called a ventral hernia, is a bulge or protrusion that occurs near or directly along a prior abdominal surgical incision.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is a legal document in all 50 states. It is an agreement for a proposed medical treatment or non-treatment, or for a proposed invasive procedure.

Inguinal Hernia Repair

Inguinal hernia repair, also known as herniorrhaphy, is the surgical correction of an inguinal hernia. An inguinal hernia is an opening, weakness, or bulge in the lining tissue (peritoneum) of the abdominal wall in the groin area between the abdomen and the thigh.

Intensive Care Unit

An intensive care unit, or ICU, is a specialized section of a hospital that provides comprehensive and continuous care for persons who are critically ill and who can benefit from treatment.

Intensive Care Unit Equipment

Intensive care unit (ICU) equipment includes patient monitoring, respiratory and cardiac support, pain management, emergency resuscitation devices, and other life support equipment designed to care for patients who are seriously injured, have a critical or life-threatening illness, or have undergone a major surgical procedure, thereby requiring 24-hour care and monitoring.

Intestinal Obstruction Repair

An intestinal obstruction is a partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine. Surgery is sometimes necessary to relieve the obstruction.

Intravenous Rehydration

Intravenous (IV) rehydration is a treatment for fluid loss in which a sterile water solution containing small amounts of salt or sugar is injected into the patient's bloodstream.

Intussusception Reduction

Intussusception is a condition in which one portion of the intestine "telescopes" into or folds itself inside another portion. The term comes from two Latin words, intus, which means "inside" and suscipere, which means "to receive." The outer "receiving" portion of an intussusception is called the intussuscipiens; the part that has been received inside the intussuscipiens is called the intussusceptum.


An iridectomy is a procedure in eye surgery in which the surgeon removes a small, full-thickness piece of the iris, which is the colored circular membrane behind the cornea of the eye. An iridectomy is also known as a corectomy.

Islet Cell Transplantation

Pancreatic islet cell transplantation involves taking the cells that produce insulin from a second source such as a donor pancreas and transplanting them into a patient.

Kidney Dialysis

Dialysis treatment replaces the function of the kidneys, which normally serve as the body's natural filtration system. Through the use of a blood filter and a chemical solution known as dialysate, the treatment removes waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream, while maintaining the proper chemical balance of the blood.

Kidney Function Tests

Kidney function tests is a collective term for a variety of individual tests and procedures that can be done to evaluate how well the kidneys are functioning. A doctor who orders kidney function tests and uses the results to assess the functioning of the kidneys is called a nephrologist.

Kidney Transplant

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure to remove a healthy, functioning kidney from a living or brain-dead donor and implant it into a patient with nonfunctioning kidneys.

Knee Arthroscopic Surgery

Knee arthroscopic surgery is a procedure performed through small incisions in the skin to repair injuries to tissues such as ligaments, cartilage, or bone within the knee joint area. The surgery is conducted with the aid of an arthroscope, which is a very small instrument guided by a lighted scope attached to a television monitor.

Knee Osteotomy

Knee osteotomy is surgery that removes a part of the bone of the joint of either the bottom of the femur (upper leg bone) or the top of the tibia (lower leg bone) to increase the stability of the knee. Osteotomy redistributes the weight-bearing force on the knee by cutting a wedge of bone away to reposition the knee.

Knee Replacement

Knee replacement is a procedure in which the surgeon removes damaged or diseased parts of the patient's knee joint and replaces them with new artificial parts. The operation itself is called knee arthroplasty.

Knee Revision Surgery

Knee revision surgery, which is also known as revision total knee arthroplasty, is a procedure in which the surgeon removes a previously implanted artificial knee joint, or prosthesis, and replaces it with a new prosthesis. Knee revision surgery may also involve the use of bone grafts.

Kneecap Removal

Kneecap removal, or patellectomy, is the partial or total surgical removal of the patella, commonly called the kneecap.

Laceration Repair

Laceration repair includes all the steps required to treat a wound in order to promote healing and minimize the risks of infection, premature splitting of sutures (dehiscence), and poor cosmetic result.


A laminectomy is a surgical procedure in which the surgeon removes a portion of the bony arch, or lamina, on the dorsal surface of a vertebra, which is one of the bones that make up the human spinal column. It is done to relieve back pain that has not been helped by more conservative treatments.


Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure used as a diagnostic tool and surgical procedure that is performed to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs, or the thorax, head, or neck. Tissue samples can also be collected for biopsy using laparoscopy and malignancies treated when it is combined with other therapies.