The anesthesiologist's role is the practice of medicine dedicated to the relief of pain and total care of the surgical patient before, during, and after surgery.
Anesthesiologists are fully trained physicians. After completing a four-year college program and four years of medical school, anesthesiologists undergo four additional years of specialized residency training. Some will spend one to two more years training in such anesthesiology subspecialty areas as obstetrics, neurosurgery, cardiac surgery, pediatrics, or critically ill patients, or to learn more about the treatment of pain. Others may select to work in research laboratories, investigating, for example, how anesthetics work and how they influence disease or recovery.
In the United States, the education of anesthesiologists takes into account their ever-expanding role in offering the best-quality health care available anywhere in the world.
The medical expertise of recent generations of anesthesiologists has significantly expanded the role of the anesthesiologist. Historically, the anesthesiologist's role was limited to that of the physician who administers anesthesia to suppress pain and consciousness in a patient undergoing surgery. Now, anesthesiologists also provide medical care in settings other than the operating room . The American Society of Anesthesiologists defines the anesthesiologist as the perioperative physician—the "all-around" physician responsible for providing medical care to each patient undergoing surgery at all stages. This includes providing the medical evaluation of the patient before surgery (preoperative), holding consultations with the surgical team , providing pain control and support of life functions during surgery (intraoperative), supervising care after surgery (postoperative), and discharging the patient from the recovery unit.
Specifically, the anesthesiologist's role has moved beyond just the operating room and into other areas of care.
In the past, complications caused by the use of anesthesia were a medical issue; however during the past 25 years, complications have significantly declined. Despite the growing need for anesthesia and the doubling of the total number of anesthesiologists practicing within the United States since 1970, patient outcomes have improved. During the past 10 years, the number of deaths resulting from anesthesia have dropped from an estimated one in 10,000 to one in 250,000.
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Morgan, G. E., M. S. Mikhail, M. J. Murray, and P. C. Larson. Clinical Anesthesiology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Stoelting, R. K. and R. D. Miller. Basics of Anesthesia. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
Guzzi, L. M. "The Anesthesiologist's Role in Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare: A Response." ASA Newsletter 66, no. 3 (March 2002).
American Board of Anesthesiology. 4101 Lake Boone Trail, Suite 510, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607-7506. (919) 881-2570. http://www.abanes.org/ .
American Society of Anesthesiologists. 520 N. Northwest Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068-2573. (847) 825-5586. http://www.asahq.org/ .
"Anesthesiology." [cited April 24, 2003]. http://jhhs.client.web-health.com/web-health/topics/GeneralHealth/generalhealthsub/generalhealth/surgicalpro/anesthesiology.html .
Florida Society of Anesthesiologists. "The role of an anesthesiologist." [cited April 24, 2003]. http://www.fsahq.org/role.htm .
Monique Laberge, Ph.D.